Hans Albrecht Bethe 1967 Born: 2 July 1906, Strassburg (now Strasbourg), Germany (now France) Died: 6 March 2005, Ithaca, NY, USA Affiliation at the time of the award: Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA Prize motivation: "for his contributions to the theory of nuclear reactions, especially his discoveries concerning the energy production in stars" Field: Astrophysics
Hendrik Antoon Lorentz in 1902 Born: 18 July 1853, Arnhem, the Netherlands Died: 4 February 1928, the Netherlands Affiliation at the time of the award: Leiden University, Leiden, the Netherlands Prize motivation: "in recognition of the extraordinary service they rendered by their researches into the influence of magnetism upon radiation phenomena" Field: Atomic physics, quantum physics
1978 - Arno Allan Penzias - Born Munich, Germany - Affiliation: Bell Laboratories, Holmdel, NJ, USA - "for their discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation" - Field: astrophysics. In 1939 at age six, he was among Jewish children evacuated from Germany to Britain as part of the Kindertransport rescue operation. His parents also fled Nazi Germany for the US and the family settled in New York in 1940. In 1946, Penzias became a naturalized citizen of the United States. Source nobelprize.org
Julian Schwinger 1965 Born: 12 February 1918, New York, NY, USA Died: 16 July 1994, Los Angeles, CA, USA Affiliation at the time of the award: Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA Prize motivation: "for their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics, with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles" Field: Quantum mechanics, quantum electrodynamics
Jules Henri Poincaré (29 April 1854 – 17 July 1912) was a French mathematician, theoretical physicist, engineer, and a philosopher of science. He is often described as a polymath, and in mathematics as The Last Universalist by Eric Temple Bell, since he excelled in all fields of the discipline as it existed during his lifetime.
Robert Andrews Millikan 1923 Born: 22 March 1868, Morrison, IL, USA Died: 19 December 1953, San Marino, CF, USA Affiliation at the time of the award: California Institute of Technology (Caltech), Pasadena, CA, USA Prize motivation: "for his work on the elementary charge of electricity and on the photoelectric effect" Field: Particle physics, electromagnetism
Murray Gell-Mann 1969 Born: 15 September 1929, New York, NY, USA Affiliation at the time of the award: California Institute of Technology (Caltech), Pasadena, CA, USA Prize motivation: "for his contributions and discoveries concerning the classification of elementary particles and their interactions" Field: Particle physics
Alan Mathison Turing fue un matemático, lógico, científico de la computación, criptógrafo y filósofo británico. Es considerado uno de los padres de la ciencia de la computación siendo el precursor de la informática moderna. Proporcionó una influyente formalización de los conceptos de algoritmo y computación: la máquina de Turing. Formuló su propia versión de la hoy ampliamente aceptada Tesis de Church-Turing.
J. Robert Oppenheimer, born on April 22, 1904, was the scientific director of the Manhattan Project, the World War II project that developed the first nuclear weapons. He strongly opposed the development of the hydrogen bomb, however, and in 1953 was suspended from secret nuclear research as an alleged communist sympathizer, a case backed by Edward Teller. In 1963 he was reinstated and awarded the Enrico Fermi Award.