the Lamassu. The Lamassu were human headed winged bulls, sometimes with the paws of a lion, which were considered guardian figures to the king. A lamassu is a protective deity, often depicted with a bull or lion's body, eagle's wings, and human's head. The term lamassu was used to denote the Assyrian-winged-man-bull symbol and statues during the Neo-Assyrian empire.
The Syriac Aramaic Alphabet. First noted was the Estrangelo script (called Estrangela in the Chaldean Churches) in the manuscripts of St. Ephrem of Edessa, Syria. Geographic differentiation produced a second script of Western Syriac called Serto, a simplified writing form of Estrangelo for the Antiochene Churches, and a third script of Eastern Syriac known as Madnhaya for the Chaldean Churches. A fourth Syriac script known as Karshuni (or Garshuni) was later employed for copying Arabic texts.