JUST BEFORE THE END of Consantinople (the tiny break in Turkish control of the South Black Sea coast) Timur invaded from Persia. The Ottomans were defeated at the Battle of Ankara. The navies of Venice and Genoa RESCUED THE OTTOMAN ARMY AND CARRIED IT TO SAFETY IN TURKISH-HELD EUROPE! Also, the small, landlocked blue enclave in the West Anatolian mountains? That was PHILADELPHIA. Philadelphia held out for 60 YEARS!