Scientific method -a method of procedure that has characterized natural science since the 17th century, consisting in systematic observation, measurement, and experiment, and the formulation, testing, and modification of hypotheses.
Johannes Kepler (1571–1630) was a German astronomer whose discoveries expanded on Copernicus’s heliocentric universe. Kepler’s research showed that the planets move in a particular orbit around the sun. His achievements included a correct description of how vision occurs, as well as how a telescope uses light.
Gravity-the force that attracts a body toward the center of the earth, or toward any other physical body having mass. For most purposes Newton's laws of gravity apply, with minor modifications to take the general theory of relativity into account.
Galileo Galilei (1564–1642) was an Italian astronomer and mathematician whose discoveries using a telescope supported the heliocentric universe theories of Copernicus. His discoveries challenged established scientific and religious thinking. Galileo was an important contributor to the development of the scientific method used by modern scientists.
René Descartes (1596–1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist. Descartes was one of the first to abandon traditional methods of thought based on Aristotle’s teachings. Instead, he promoted a new science based on observation and experiments. For this, he has been called the father of modern philosophy.
Nicolaus Copernicus (1473–1543) was a Polish astronomer who concluded that the sun is the center of the universe around which Earth and the other planets revolve. This contradicted the religious and scientific belief that Earth was the center of the universe. Although he did not suffer immediate challenges from the Church, his most important work did not appear in print until after his death.
Calculus-the branch of mathematics that deals with the finding and properties of derivatives and integrals of functions, by methods originally based on the summation of infinitesimal differences. The two main types are differential calculus and integral calculus.
Tycho Brahe (1546–1601) was a Danish astronomer who produced the most accurate measurements and locations of the stars before the use of the telescope. His observation that a new star had appeared in an existing constellation challenged the belief that the stars were fixed and forever unchanging.
Robert Boyle (1627–1691) was one of the leading minds of the late 1600s. An English-Irish philosopher and writer, Boyle focused on chemistry, physics, and natural history. His work with pressurized air led to the development of Boyle’s Law, which describes the relationship between pressure and the volume of gas. Boyle was one of the founders of the Royal Society of London.
Issac Newton-(1642-1727) Was one of the most important figures of the scientific revolution. An English mathematician and physicist,Newtons three laws of motion form the basic principles of modern physics and led to the formulation of the universal law of gravity. His 1687 book "Mathematician Principles of Natural Philosophy", is considered one of the most important works in the history of modern science.